Crude Oil

CRUDE Oil is a combination of natural hydrocarbons, which is refined to diesel, jet fuel, kerosene, gasoline, heating oil, and many other products called petrochemicals. Crude oils are named according to their origins and contents, also classified according to their unit weight and gravity. Heavier crude produce more heat upon burning; however, it has lower API gravity and market price in comparison to light crude such as Bonny Light Crude Oil.
             Crude Oil also known as Petroleum, is an essential liquid found within the Earth, which comprised of organic compounds, hydrocarbons and small quantity of metal. Although hydrocarbons are the primary component of crude oil, their composition often varies from about 50% to about 97% depending on the nature of crude oil and the extraction method used. Organic compounds such as oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur usually form about 6%-10% of crude oil whereas metals like vanadium, copper, nickel and iron typically account for below 1% of the total composition of Crude Oil.

Crude Oil Development
Crude oil is produced through compression and heating of organic materials for an extended period of time. Nearly all the oil we extract nowadays is from the residue of prehistoric algae and zooplankton whose leftovers settled on the underneath of an Ocean, Sea or Lake. Eventually, this organic material mixed with mud and was heated to very high temperatures from the pressure of heavy layers of sediment. This process is called diagenesis, changes the chemical composition into a compound known as kerogen and then, with improved heat, into liquid through a process referred to as catagenesis. There is no much difference between diagenesis and metamorphism, however metamorphism occurs at higher temperatures and pressures than diagenesis.

Extraction of Crude Oil
 The main technique of crude oil extraction is called drilling. The method often start with Geologists initial identify a piece of land they think has oil flowing underneath it. There are several ways to do this; the most commonly used methods are satellite imagery, magnetometers and gravity meters. As soon as a steady flow of oil is found, then underground drilling can commence. 
                Drilling method is not a very difficult process, however; a regular procedure has already been developed for maximum efficiency. The initial process involves drilling the ground in the correct location where the crude oil is sited. When a steady flow is identified at a particular distance downward below the ground then a perforating-gun is lowered down the oil well. 
               A perforating gun usually has explosive charges in it, which allow crude oil to flow through holes in the casing up the well. The final step is the placement of a structure popularly called a Christmas tree, which allows crude oil workers to be in control of the flow of oil from the well.

Oil Sands

              Oil sand is a naturally occurring combination of sand, clay, water and other minerals, oil sand is a heavy and extremely thick oil known as bitumen which must be treated before it can be used to produce fuels such as gasoline and diesel etc. improved technologies are now increasing the treatment techniques available to oil sands producers.

              The extraction procedure for oil sands is unlike drilling due to the thickness of this over-heavy oil. Instead of using drills, crude oil is extracted from oil sands using a process called strip mining and other techniques used to reduce the thickness of the oil. This process is often far more expensive than the traditional drilling.

Global Oil Production

              Almost every human being on earth and every country in the planet depend on oil; however, not all countries produce oil. The top five oil-producing countries are Saudi Arabia, United States, Russia, China and Iran. It is important to note that the term production here refers to crude oil extracted from oil reserves. In addition, the top five oil-consuming countries are Japan, United States, China, Germany and Russia.
              The current rate of global oil consumption is estimated that worldwide oil reserves will drastically reduced by 2039.